Colonial Era

1600s

Tutsi King Ruganzu Ndori subdues central Rwanda and outlying Hutu areas.

Before colonization: No ethnic identification or conflict recorded

1897

German Protectorate imposed upon Rwanda

1931

Ethnic origin was added to the identity papers of able-bodied men by Belgian colonizers.

Decolonization

1957

Rwanda indigenous Supreme Council advising  the king published a document called in French “Mise au Point” (meaning ‘setting the record straight’) requesting more power to the indigenous authorities as a prelude to rapid independence

1958

Mwami Mutara Rudahigwa created a ‘special commission for social relations in Ruanda’, composed of Hutu and Tutsi members in equal proportions

1958

The country’s Supreme Council voted a motion for the (ethnic) terms Hutu, Tutsi and Twa to be removed from official documents

1959

“The Hutu Social Revolution” amidst mass killings and deportation of Tutsi, the Belgian colonial administration and Catholic Church helped Hutu political parties seize power and installed a Republic of the Hutu elites.

First Republic 1962-1973, Second Republic 1973-1994

1964

300.000 Tutsi refugees in neighboring countries definitively banned from coming back to Rwanda

1973

 Violence and flight of thousands Tutsi students and civil servants

1986

The Party State MRND declared the country too small and too full to permit the return of hundreds of thousands Tutsi refugees

1994

Genocide against the Tutsi as radical resistance to change carried out by the state and Hutu extremist political parties

The path towards reconciliation

1992

The First protocol the Arusha Peace Agreements signed that aimed to put an end the war and establish a Broad-based Government of National Unity including the former party-state MRND, the RPF and the internal political opposition

1994

Creation by the RPF of the Government of National Unity with all the political parties or factions of parties that were not involved in the genocide with as constitutional basis the modified Arusha Agreements.

1996

return of 700.000 refugees from Zaire (today DRC); December 1996, 550.000 refugees from Tanzania repatriated

1999

March 1999 Creation of the National Unity and Reconciliation Commission (inscribed in the Arusha Accords)

The Path toward socio-economic transformation

1998

Urugwiro Village Discussions which laid out the institutions and majors socioeconomic-policies of the New Rwanda

2000

President Kagame elected by a joint session of the government and the National Assembly

2001

The launch of the National Innovation and Competitiveness Program

2003

The 2003 Constitution of power sharing voted by referendum.

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About
Rwanda has transformed itself in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide. This site documents the stories, policies, and programs that are fueling that transformation. We welcome you to learn about Rwanda’s journey thus far.
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